Last updated on 24 April 2023
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease contributed to 20.1% and 6.1% of all deaths respectively in 20211. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment (CVRA) comprises non-modifiable risk factors, lifestyle factors and biochemical screening tests.
The goal of CVRA is to identify modifiable risk factors, support behavioural change and inform medical management when necessary. For risk factors for residents 40 years and above, see Table 1A below. For risk factors for residents aged 18 to 39, refer to
The risk of cardiovascular disease should be estimated based on the global assessment of risk factors using the 10-year coronary artery disease risk score4 rather than single risk factors.
Management should be based on a shared decision-making model after a discussion with patients based on their global assessment risk score, personal preferences, and potential benefits and harms of pharmaceutical therapies.
Table 1A. For residents 40 years and above.8
Fasting Blood Glucose
Once every 3 years or more often
+ Risk factors for metabolic syndrome
This care protocol focuses on Category 1 screening recommendations made by the Screening Test Review Committee
where there is good and robust evidence that these tests are clinically effective and cost effective for use at population level. Government subsidies under the Screen for Life (SFL) programme are available for obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes screening tests (risk factors 7 to 10) in green cells in Table 1A, and they are done as a bundle once every 3 years – details in the Financing section.
Use the 10-year coronary artery disease risk score to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Record CVRA in medical record.
For all patients, recommend lifestyle interventions where appropriate.
>150 minutes of moderately intense exercise per week and minimise sedentary behaviour.
See risk stratification and LDL-cholesterol targets (adapted from MOH CP on Lipids Dec 2016) based on the 10-year coronary artery disease risk score. For high risk and very high risk categories, please refer to the
Hyperlipidaemia Chronic Care Protocol or
DHL (Multimorbidity) Chronic Care Protocol.
GPs should proactively check if their enrolled patients have undergone the nationally recommended CVRA screening tests as part of SFL (green boxes in Table 1A). If they have not done so, GPs should encourage their patients to do so. If they have completed their screening with private providers (e.g. as part of workplace screening), GPs should request the patient to share the results with them. Where tests were performed within PHIs or under SFL, GPs may refer to NEHR for the results of their patients.
As good clinical practice, GPs should consider face-to-face follow-up consultations and closer monitoring of patients who have borderline or abnormal screening results from previous screening, and patients who may have normal results but present with other risk factors such as gestational diabetes or family history of risk factors such as diabetes. All patients with risk factors, borderline or abnormal results should be provided lifestyle modification advice as part of holistic clinical management. Patients screened under SFL7 would be eligible for a fully subsidised post screening follow-up visit. For patients who require repeat screenings, these are subsidised under SFL as well – please refer below for the management workflows.
Repeat Screens for Diabetes Mellitus
A. Fasting Blood Glucose
If the first fasting blood glucose (FBG) result is abnormal, GPs may either offer the repeat FBG or confirmatory OGTT depending on their patient's profile in accordance with SFL's diagnostic workflow .
Under SFL, GPs may conduct up to one repeat screening i.e. total of two tests for diabetes screening. The cost of the repeat test (up to 1 repeat) is covered under SFL and patients should not be charged. GPs should continue to exercise their clinical judgement on the necessity of additional evidence-based screening tests for individuals. GPs should reference SFL's diagnostic workflow before deciding if a second repeat test should be submitted. Any repeat tests should only be conducted if clinically indicated.
If the first HbA1c screening result is 6.1% to 6.9%, GP should proceed to do a Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) to determine whether patient has no diabetes, pre-diabetes or diabetes. The cost of the repeat test (up to 1 repeat) is covered under SFL and patients should not be charged.
Summary of SFL's HBA1C screening guidelines .
The timeline for conducting the screening/ repeat screening/follow-up for diabetes is as indicated in Table 3.
Table 3: Timeline for conducting the screening/repeat screening/follow-up sessions as well as for SFL claim submissions.
Repeat Screens for Hyperlipidaemia
Doctors may consider a repeat fasting lipid profile for patients with abnormal screening results from a non-fasting lipid profile. This is especially when there is uncertainty over the potential validity of results (e.g. high fat consumption prior to the test, or borderline TG or LDL-cholesterol levels). However, such follow-up tests would be considered as disease management, and the cost of these tests will not be covered under SFL. Prevailing CHAS / CDMP chronic subsidies may be applicable instead.
The following data fields should be documented in GPs' case notes as part of good clinical practice for all patients enrolled to their practice.
Submission of data fields marked with asterisks (*) is required for subsidy claims and Healthier SG payments. These are aligned to data being submitted for SFL claims.
Smoking Status* (Never smoker, Ex-smoker, Current smoker)
Year Started Smoking (if smoker)
No. of sticks smoked/day* (if smoker)
Stage of change: (i) Pre-contemplation, (ii) Contemplation, (iii) Preparation (iv) Action, or (v) Maintenance
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L or mg/dL)*
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L or mg/dL)*
Triglycerides (mmol/L or mg/dL)*
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L or mg/dL)*
Systolic BP (mmHg)*
Diastolic BP (mmHg)*
HbA1c (%)* OR Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) (mmol/L or mg/ dL)*
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) (mmol/L or mg/dL)
BMI (kg/m2), calculated from height*, weight*
Waist Circumference (in cm)
For Singapore Citizens enrolled in Healthier SG, screening tests for obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes (see green cells in Table 1A) will be provided free of charge at their enrolled GP, only if conducted in line with SFL scheme eligibility criteria and as per the recommended frequency of once every 3 years (see ScreenforLife.gov.sg) under the SFL programme. This also includes any repeat test for diabetes* (up to 1 repeat).
Healthier SG GPs therefore do not need to collect payments from SCs enrolled to their clinics for these screening tests. Instead, Healthier SG GPs should claim for the full remuneration using the same process and to the same bank account as for payments made under the SFL scheme. GPs are advised to check the enrolee’s eligibility for the screening subsidies using the subsidy eligibility tool for SFL in MHCP.
Details on GP remuneration for providing SFL screenings to eligible SCs can be found in the prevailing CHAS agreement. Details on the GP annual service fee can be found in the Healthier SG Enrolment Programme Agreement.